Glory of Uttar Pradesh (UP)

The known history of Uttar Pradesh goes back to 4000 years ago, when the Aryans first made it their home in 2000 BC. This heralded the Vedic age of the Indian civilisation and Uttar Pradesh was its home. The Aryans first inhabited the Doab region and the Ghagra plains and called it the Madhya Desha (midland) or Aryavarta (the Aryan land) or Bharatvarsha (the kingdom of Bharat, an important Aryan king). In the ages to come, Aryans moved to other parts of the Indian subcontinent, reaching as far as to Kerala and Sri Lanka in the south.

The ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala in Ayodhya, where Lord Rama of the Ramayana reigned, was located here and Lord Krishna, revered as the eighth Avatara of Vishnu, was born in the city of Mathura. The Chaukhandi Stupa marks the spot where Lord Buddha met his first disciples. The Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath commemorates Buddha’s first sermon. The Mahabharat war and the aftermath took part in the area between Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. It was ruled under King Yudhishtira after the Mahabharat. After that, this area was sometimes divided between petty kingdoms or formed important parts of larger empires from the east or the west, including the Mauryan, Gupta and Kushan empires.Causing the fall of the Rajput came the Muslims rulers and what we call UP today once again became the catalyst for things to come.

Much of the state formed part of the various Muslim Sultanates who ruled from Delhi. U.P. became the heart land of the Moghul Empire who called the place ‘Hindustan’ which became the second name of U.P. (after Aryavarta/Madhyadesh). Hindustan is another name for India. Agra and Fatehpur Sikri were important as the capital city of Akbar, the great Mughal Emperor of India. The city of Lucknow was established by the Muslim nawabs of Oudh in the 18th century. Starting from the latter half of the 18th century, a series of battles finally gave British accession to the last Mughal territory — the Doab, as also Bundelkhand, Kumaon and Banaras divisions. Delhi, Ajmer and Jaipur were also included in this territory. They called it the North western provinces (of Agra). Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad. After the failed freedom war of 1857, when things settled, the British made a major revamp and truncated the Delhi region and gave it to Punjab, and the Ajmer-Merwar region to Rajputana.

After independence, the state was renamed Uttar Pradesh (”northern province”) by its first chief minister, Govind Ballabh Pant. UP is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. Uttar Pradesh covers a large part of the highly fertile and densely populated upper Gangetic plain. It shares an international border with Nepal and is bounded by the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Bihar. The administrative and legislative capital of Uttar Pradesh is Lucknow; its high court is based at Allahabad.

Pant was succeeded by Dr. Sampoornanand, a university professor and classicist. A Sanskrit scholar, he was in office till 1957. Sucheta Kripalani was sworn in October 1963, and became India’s first woman chief minister, until a two-month long strike by state employees in March 1967 caused her to step down. The defection of Charan Singh from the Congress with a small set of legislators formed the first non-Congress government in U.P. Fellow socialist Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna of the Bharatiya Lok Dal was Chief Minister for part of the 1970s, and was dismissed, along with several other non-Congress chief ministers, shortly after the imposition of the Emergency, when Narain Dutt Tewari became chief minister. The Congress Party lost heavily in 1977 following the lifting of the Emergency, but roared back to power in 1980, when Mrs. Gandhi handpicked the man who would become her son’s principal opposition, V.P. Singh, to become Chief Minister. After that many non-congress parties, such as Bhartiya Janata Party, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party ruled the state. In 2000 the Himalyan portion of the state — the Garhwal and Kumaon divisions — were formed into a new state called Uttarakhand (meaning the northern part of the state).

The state language is standard Hindi and Urdu has the status of second official language. While standard Hindi (Khari boli) is the official language, several regional Hindi ‘dialects’ are spoken throughout the state. Among these are, Awadhi, Bagheli, Bhojpuri, Braj, Bundeli. Bhojpuri is the second most-spoken language in the state, according to the language data in the 1991 Census of India. Urdu is prominent in Uttar Pradesh as Lucknow was once the center of Persianate culture in north India.

The State of U.P. has made investments over the years in all sectors of education and has achieved some success. The female literacy situation in Uttar Pradesh is dismal. Only one out of four in the 7+ age group was able to read and write in 1991. The famous universities and other institutions are: Allahabad University, Banaras Hindu University, Aligarh Muslim University, Darul Uloom Deoband, Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur), Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, Indian Institute of Information Technology (Allahabad), G.B.Pant University (formerly known as Agricultural University) and world famous Asian Academy Of Film & Television.

Uttar Pradesh is a very fertile region and a major contributor to the national foodgrain stock. Partly this is due to the fertile regions of the Indo-Gangetic plain, and partly owing to irrigation measures such as the Ganga Canal. Lakhimpur Kheri is the largest sugar producing district in the country. It is also home to 78% of national livestock population. This chart shows the national share of major food commodities from Uttar Pradesh. Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Uttar Pradesh.

A vast number of tourists visit the Taj Mahal in Agra. Another important tourist attraction in Agra is the Agra Fort. Also famous is a 16th century capital city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar known as Fatehpur Sikri near Agra. Dayal Bagh is a temple built in modern times that many visit. The life-like carving in marble is not seen anywhere else in India. Dudhwa National Park is one of the best Tiger reserves in the country. Lakhimpur Kheri is a must see location, and home to the Tiger reserve. Millions of tourists and pilgrims visit the cities of Allahabad, Varanasi and Ayodhya, as those are considered to be the holiest cities in India. Varanasi is widely considered to be the second oldest city in the world after Jerusalem. The state hosts a Kumbha Mela every 12 years, where over 10 million Hindus congregate — the largest gathering of human beings in the world.

Uttar Pradesh is famous for its arts and crafts. Specific regions such as Varanasi for its saris and silk, Mirzapur and Bhadohi for its carpets, Agra and Kanpur for their leather craft, Moradabad for its metal ware, Lucknow for its cloth work and embroidery, and the entire state for its pottery are not only famous in India but around the world.Uttar Pradesh in one of the most ancient cradles of Indian culture. While it is true that no Harappa and Mohan-Jodaro have been discovered in the State, the antiquities found in Banda (Bundelkhand), Mirzapur and Meerut link its History to early Stone Age and Harappan era. Chalk drawings or dark red Drawings by primitive men are extensively found in the Vindhyan ranges of Mirzapur districts. Utensils of that age have also been discovered in Atranji-Khera, Kaushambi, Rajghat and Sonkh. Copper articles have been found in Kanpur, Unnao, Mirzapur, Mathura and advent of the Aryans in this State. It is most probable that snapped links between the Indus Valley and Vedic civilizations lie buried under the ruins of ancient sites found in this State.

The Mathura Schools of Art reached its pinnacle during the Kushan Period. The Most important work of this period is the anthromorphic image of the Buddha who was hitherto represented by certain symbols. The artists of Mathura and Gandha were pioneers who carved out images of the Buddha. Images of Jain Tirthankars and Hindu deities were also made in Mathura.

List of people from Uttar Pradesh

Nine of India’s fourteen Prime Ministers hail from Uttar Pradesh. They are: Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Gulzari Lal Nanda, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Choudhary Charan Singh, Vishwanath Pratap Singh, Chandra Shekhar (from Ballia) and Atal Behari Vajpayee.

  • Lord Rama ( Ayodhya )
  • Lord Krishna (Mathura )
  • Jayaprakash Narayan, Ballia, widely known as JP, was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s.
  • Prem Chand , Greatest Hindi Novalist ( Rangbhoomi,Godan etc )
  • ‘Acharya’ Hazariprasad Dwivedi from Ballia was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar.
  • Mangal Pandey, Ballia, Initiator of the First Independence War of
    India
  • Gosvami Tulasidasa (Wrote Ramayana, The greatest epic ever told).
  • Jaishankar Prasad , ( kamayani )one of four major pillars of the Chhayavaadi School of Hindi
  • Pavhari Baba, a great and enlightened saint from Ghazipur
  • Sumitranandan Pant , one of four major pillars of the Chhayavaadi School of Hindi
  • Chittu Pandey (Shere Ballia), Hero of 1942 revolution in Ballia district. He led the “Quit India Movement in Ballia
  • Chandrasekhar Azad, was an Indian revolutionary and the mentor of Bhagat Singh.
  • Ashfaqullah Khan, great freedom fighter and Hero of freedom strugle of
    India. He was closed associate with Bhagat singh and Chandrashekhar.
  • Abdul Hamid (soldier),  bravely fought the India-Pakistan war  and become a martyr
  • Kanshi Ram, politician
  • Mayawati, politician
  • Zafar Iqbal, Hockey star, a former captain Indian hockey
  • Mohammed Kaif, a cricketer
  • Mulayam Singh Yadav, politician
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Founder of BHU
  • Sir Syed Ahmad Khan Founder of Aigarh Muslim University
  • Amitabh Bachchan, Famous Actor
  • Ranganath Mishra, former Chief Justice of India
  • K.N. Singh, former Chief Justice of India
  • Gopal Swarup Pathak, former Vice President of India
  • Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, a well-known Indian Scientist
  • Mahadevi Varma, a famous poetess
  • Ram Prasad Bismil, Freedom Fighter
  • Raj Nath Singh, a politician

(Note: Above information is copied from the sites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uttar_Pradesh and http://www.upgov.nic.in/upinfo/cult_heri1.html, and this site doesn’t claim its authorship in any form.)

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One Response to “Glory of Uttar Pradesh (UP)”

  1. Introduction of Dr. Vinaya K. Singh, Ph.D. « How to transform Uttar Pradesh (UP) into Uttam Pradesh (Best State) Says:

    […] Glory of Uttar Pradesh (UP) […]

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